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DEFINITION OF PLUMBING TERMS

ALLEY - Alley is any public space, public park moroughiare less than three (3) meters but not less than two (2) meters in width which has been dedicated or deeded to the public for public use.
ALTER OR ALTERATION - Alter or alteration is any change, addition or modification in construction or
occupancy. (Change or repair). visit http://philarchreview.blogspot.com/
APPROVED - Approved means accepted or acceptable under an applicable specificationstated or cited in this Code, or accepted as suitable for the proposed use under procedures and powers at the authority.
AUTHORITY - Authority in this Code is mean to be the individual official, board, department or agency established an authorized by the office of the President (R.A. No. 1378) to administer and enforce the provisions of this National Plumbing Codeas adapted or amended. (Prof. Sanitary Engineering) – Plans and specs, (Master Plumber) - Install
BACKFLOW - The flow of water into a water supply system from source other than its regular source. Back siphonage is one type of backflow.
BAK PRESSURE - Air pressure in drainage pipes greater than atmospheric pressure.
BACK VENT PIPE - the part of a vent line which connects directly with an individual trap underneath or behind the fixture and extends to the branch or main, soil, or waste pipe at any point higher than the fixture or fixture trap it serves. This is sometimes called an individual vent.
BALL COCK - A faucet opened or closed by the fall or rise of a ball floating on the surface ofwater. - A float valve with a spherical float.
BALL JOINT - A connection in which a ball is held in a cuplike shell that allows movement in every direction.
BATTERY OF FIXTURES - Battery of fixtures is any of two or more similar adjacent fixtures which discharge into a common horizontal soil branch.
BELL OR HUB - That portion of a pipe which for a short distance, is sufficiently enlarged to received the end of another pipe of the same diameter for the purpose of making a joint.
BENDING PIN (OR IRON) - A tool used for straightening or expanding lead pipe.
BIBB - Synonymous with faucet is preferred. Faucet or Spigot.
BIDET - A plumbing fixture used for washing the middle part of the body, specially the genitals. Also a sitz bath (Used to wash posterior parts of the body).
BLANK FLANGE - A flange that is not drilled.
BLIND FLANGE - A flange that closes the end of a pipe. There is no opening for the passage of water. (Used for black iron pipes).
BLOW OFF - A controlled outlet on a pipe line used too discharge water or detritus. (In Sanitary house trap).
BRANCH - A branch is any part of a piping system other than the main, riser or stack.
MWSS / OPWH - Installation of national local water works.- For installation & excavation respectively.
BRANCH INTERVAL - A length of soil or waste stack corresponding in general to a story height, but- in no case less than eight (8) feet, within which the horizontal branches from one floor or story of a building are connected to the stack.
BRANCH VENT - A vent pipe connecting from a branch of the drainage system to a vent stack.
BUILDING - Building is any structure built, erected and framed of component structural parts designed for the housing, shelter, enclosure or support of persons, animals, or property of any kind.
BUILDING DRAIN - See house Drain.
BUILDING SEWER - See House Sewer.
BUILDING SUBDRAIN -That portion of a drainage system which cannot drain by gravity into the
building sewer. ( Any piping system which needed to be elevated from basement to the N.G.L.)
CALKING - Plugging an opening with oakum, lead or other materials that are pounded into place. Also, the material that is pounded into the opening.
CAP - A fitting into which the end of a pipe is screwed for the purpose of closing the end of the pipe.
CATCH BASIN - A receptacle in which liquids are retained for a sufficient period to deposit settle able material visit http://philarchreview.blogspot.com/
CESSPOOL - A pit for the reception or detention of sewage.
CHECK VALVE - A valve that automatically closes to prevent the flow of water in reverse direction.(Prevents reverse flow)
CIRCUIT VENT - A group vent extending from in front of the last fixture connection on a horizontal branch to the vent stack. See also loop vent. (Loop vent, Branch vent)
COMMON VENT - See unit vent and dual vent
CONDUCTOR, LEADER, OR DOWNSPOUT - A vertical pipe to convey rain water.
CONTINUOUS VENT - - A continuous vent is a vertical vent that is a continuation of the drain, to which
the vent connects. (or VSTR)
CORPORATION COCK - A stop valve placed in a service pipe close to its connection with a water main.
COURT - A court is an open , unoccupied space bounded on two (2) or more sides by the walls of the buildings. An inner court is a court entirely within the exteriorwalls of a building. All other courts are outer courts.
CROSS CONNECTION - Any physical connection or arrangement of pipes between two otherwise
separate building water-supply pipes or a system through which or by means of which water supply may flow from one system to the other, the direction of flow depending on the pressure differential between the two systems.
DEAD END -The extended portion of a pipe that is closed at one end to which no connections are made on the extended portion, thus permitting the stagnation of water or air therein. (Water hammer arrester or air gap or air chamber).
DEVELOPMENT LENGTH -The length along the center line of the pipe and the fittings.
DIAMETER - “Diameter” of a pipe or tube shall mean the nominal internal diameter (I.D.) of such pipe; except brass and copper tubing wherein the term shall mean the outside diameter (O.D.) of tubing.
DOMESTIC SEWAGE - See sanitary sewage.
DOUBLE-BEND FITTING - A pipe fitting shaped like the letter “S”.
DOUBLE OFFSET - Two offsets in succession or in series in the same line.
DOWNSPOUT - The vertical portion of a rainwater conductor.
DRAIN - A sewer or other pipe or conduit used for conveying ground water, surface water, storm water, or sewage.
DRAINAGE SYSTEM -The drainage pipes of a plumbing system take the water from the plumbing fixtures and deliver it to the sewer or some other outlet. The drainage pipes must be gas-light, and water-light. The passage of air, odors or vitamin from the sewer into the building must be prevented.
DRY VENT - A vent that does not carry water or water- borne wastes.
DUAL VENT - See unit vent.
EXISTING WORK - The term “existing work” shall apply to those portions of plumbing system which have been installed and approved prior to the contemplated additions, collections, or corrections.
FAMILY - Family is one person living alone or a group of two (2) or more persons living together, whether related to each other by birth or not.
FAUCET - A valve on a water pipe by means of which water can be drawn from or held within the pipe. The valve is placed on the end of the pipe.
FERRULE - A metallic sleeve, called or otherwise, joined to an opening in a pipe, into which a plug is screwed that can be removed for the purpose of cleaning or examining the interior of the pipe.
FIXTURE - A receptacle attached to a plumbing system other than a trap in which water or wastes may be collected or retained for ultimate discharge into the plumbing system.
FIXTURE BRANCH - The supply pipe between the fixture and the water distributing pipe.
FIXTURE DRAIN - The drain from the trap of a fixture to the junction of the drain with any other drain pipe.
FIXTURE UNIT - One fixture unit is equivalent to a flow rate of one (1) cubic foot of water per minute or seven and a half (71/2) gallons of water per minute.
FLASHING - A piece of sheet metal fitted under another piece of flat metal or wood over which water is expected to run.
FLOOD LEVEL - The level in a fixture at which water begins to overflow the top or rim of the fixture.
FLOOR AREA - The area included within surrounding walls of a building (or portion thereof), exclusive of vent shafts and courts.
FLUSH VALVE - A valve used for flushing a fixture by using water directly from the water supply pipes or in connection with a special flush tank.
GATE VALVE - A valve in which the flow of water is cut off by means of a circular disk, fitting against machine-smoothed faces, at right angles to the direction of flow. The disk is raised or lowered by means of a threaded stem connected to the handle of the valve. The opening in the valve is usually as large as the full bore of the pipe. visit http://philarchreview.blogspot.com/
GLOBE VALVE - A valve in which the flow of water is cut off by means of a circular disk that fits against the valve seat. The plane of movement of the disk is parallel to the normal direction of flow of water, which is turned through a tortuous passage to direct the flow normal to the face of the disk.
GOOSE NECK - A return bend of small-sized pipe one end of which is about one (1) foot long and the other end is about three (3) inches long. It is commonly used as a faucet for a pantry sink. Also, the lead connection between a service pipe and a water main.
GRADE - The slope or fall of a line of pipe in reference to a horizontal plane usually expressed in percent.
GROUND WATER - The water that is standing in or passing through the ground.
GROUP VENT - A branch vent that performs its function for two (2) or more traps.
HEIGHT OF BUILDING - The vertical distance from the “Grade Line” to the highest point of the coping of a flat roof or to the deck line of a mansard roof or to the average height of the highest gab le of a pitch or hip-roof.
HORIZONTAL BRANCH - A branch drain extending laterally from soil or waste stack, with or without vertical sections or branches, that receives the discharge from one or more fixture drains and conducts it to the soil or waste stack or to the building drain.
HOUSE DRAIN - The house drain is that part of the lowest horizontal piping of a plumbing system which receives the discharge from soil, waste, and other drainage pipes inside of a buildings conveys it to the house sewer.
HOUSE STORM SEWER - A house storm sewer is the pipeline from the building to the public storm
sewer system.
INDIRECT WASTE PIPE - A waste pipe that does not connect directly with the building drainage system
but discharges into is through a properly trapped fixture or receptacle.
INDIVIDUAL VENT - See back vent.
INDUSTRIAL WASTES - Industrial waste are liquid waste resulting from the processes employed in
industrial establishments and are free from fecal matter.
INSANITARY - Contrary to sanitary principles or injurious to health.
INTERCEPTOR - A receptacle designed and constructed to intercept or separate, and prevent the passage of oil, grease, sand, or other materials into the drainage system to which it is directly or indirectly connected.
INVERT - The lowest portion of the inside of any pipe conduit that is not vertical.
LATERAL - In plumbing, a secondary pipe line. In average, a common sewer to which no other common sewer is tributary, receives sewage only from building sewers.
LATRINE - A water closet consisting of a continuous though containing water. The trough extends under two (2) or more adjacent seats. Prohibited by most authorities for permanent installations.
LAVATORY - A fixture designed for the washing of the hands or face. Sometimes called a wash basin.
LEACHING CESSPOOL – A cesspool that is not watertight.
LEADER - See conductor.
LENGTH OF PIPE - The length as measured along.
LOCAL VENT - A pipe or shaft serving to convey foul air from a plumbing fixture or a room to the outer air.
LOOP OR CIRCUIT
VENT - A continuation of a horizontal soil or waste pipe beyond the connection at which liquid wastes from a fixture or fixtures enter the waste or soil pipe. The extension is usually vertical immediately beyond its connection to the soil or waste pipe. The base of the vertical portion of the vent may be connected to the horizontal portion of the soil or waste stack between fixtures connected thereto.
MAIN - The main of any system of continuous piping is the principal artery of the system, to which branches may be connected.
MAIN VENT - See vent stack.
MANHOLE - An opening constructed in a sewer or any part of a plumbing system of sufficient size for a ,an to gain access thereto.
MASTERPLUMBER - A person with knowledge of and experience in plumbing who employs journeymen plumbers or who conducts a plumbing business.
OAKUM - Hemp or old hemp rope soaked in oil to make it waterproof.
OCCUPANCY - Occupancy is the purpose for which a building is used or intended to be used. The term shall also include the building or room housing such use. Change of
Occupancy is not intended to include change of tenants or proprietors.
PERSON - A natural person, his heirs, executors, administrators, its or their successor or assigns, or the agent of any of the aforesaid.
PITCH - See grade.
PLUMBING - The art and technique of installing in buildings the pipes, fixtures, and other apparatuses for bringing in the water supply, liquids, substances or ingredients and removing them and such water, liquid, and other carried-wastes affecting health and sanitation and hazardous to life and property; also the pipes and fixtures after they have been installed, i.e. the plumbing system.
PLUMBING FIXTURE - A receptacle attached to a plumbing system other than a trap in which water or
wastes may be collected or retained for ultimate discharge into the plumbing system.
PLUMBING SYSTEM - The plumbing system of a building, institution,, factory or industrial establishment, includes the water-supply, liquids, substances and or ingredients distributing pipes; and those pipes removing them and such water, liquid, and other carried-wastes; the fixtures and fixture traps; the soil, waste, and vent
pipes; the house drain, the foundation drain, and the house sewer; the storm-water drainage; drainage ejectors, all with their devices, appurtenances, and connections within or on a building, a factory, or an industry.
PLUMBING OFFICIAL - The authority or the officer charged with the administration and enforcement
of the National Plumbing Code, or his regularly authorized deputy.
POTABLE WATER - Potable water is water which is satisfactory for drinking, culinary, domestic purposes and meets the requirements of the health authority having jurisdiction.
PRIMARY BRANCH - A primary branch of the building drain is the single sloping drain from the base of a stack to its junction with the main building drain or with another branch thereof.
PRIVATE OR PRIVATE USE - Private applies to fixtures in a residence where the fixtures are intended for the use of a family or an individual.
PRIVATE SEWER - A private sewer is a sewer privately owned and not directly controlled by public authority.
PRIVY - An outhouse or structure used for the deposition of excrement.
PRIVY VAULT - A pit beneath a privy in which excrement collects.
PUBLIC OR PUBLIC USE - In the classification of plumbing fixtures, public applies to fixtures in general toilet rooms of schools, gymnasiums, hotels, railroad stations, public buildings, bars, public comforts stations, or places to which the public is invited or which are frequented by the public without special permission or special invitation, and other installations (whether pay or free) where a number of fixtures are installed so that their use is similarly unrestricted.
PUBLIC SEWER - A public sewer is a common sewer directly controlled by public authority to which all abutters have equal rights of connections.
RELIEF VENT - A relief vent is a vent the primary function of which is to provide circulation of air between drainage and vent system.
REPAIR - The reconstruction or renewal of any part of an existing building for the purpose of its maintenance. The word “repair” or “repairs” shall not apply to any change of construction.
RETURN BEND - An open return bend, usually with inside threads, but applied also to a one hundred eighty (180 degree) bend in a pipe.
REVENT PIPE - See back vent pipe.
RISER - A water supply pipe that extends vertically one full story or more too convey water to branches or fixtures.
ROUGHING-IN - The installation of all pipes in the plumbing system that are in partitions and under floors. It includes the plumbing work done before the setting of the fixtures, or finishing.
SANITARY SEWAGE - The sewage containing human excrement and liquid household waste; also called domestic sewage.
SANITARY SEWER - A sewer intended to receive sanitary sewage with or without industrial wastesand without the admixture of surface water, storm water, or drainage.
SEAL - The vertical distance between the dip and the crown weir of a trap. Also, the water in the trap between the dip and the crown weir.
SECONDARY BRANCH - And branch in a building drain other than the primary branch.
SEPTIC TANK - A septic tank is a watertight receptacle, which receives the discharge of a plumbing system or part thereof, and is designed and constructed so as to separate solids from the liquid digest the organic matter through a period of detention, and allow the effluent to discharge into a storm drain; or directly to the ground outside the tank through a system of open joint or perforated piping.
SERVICE PIPE - The pipe from the water main or source of water supply to the building served.
SEWAGE - The liquid wastes conducted away from residences, business buildings, institutions, industrial establishments; and with such ground, surface, and storm water as may be present.
SEWER - A pipe or conduit for carrying sewage and waste liquids.
SEWERAGE, OR
SEWERAGE WORKS - A comprehensive term, including all construction for collection, transportation,
pumping, treatment and final disposition of sewage.
SHAFT - A vertical opening through a building for elevators, dumb-waiter, ventilation or similar purpose.
SHALL - As used in this Code, is mandatory.
SIAMESE CONNECTION - A wye connection used on fire lines so that two lines of hose may be connected to hydrant or to the same nozzle.
SIPHONAGE. - A suction by the flow of liquids in pipes. A pressure less than atmospheric.
SOIL PIPE - A soil pipe is any pipe which conveys the discharge of water closets, urinals, or fixtures having similar functions. Also, a cast-iron pipe, with bell and spigot ends, used in plumbing to convey fecal matter or liquid wastes.
SOIL STACK PIPE - A vertical soil pipe conveying fecal matter and liquid waste.
SPIGOT - The end of a pipe, which fits into a bell. Also a word used synonymously with faucet.
STACK - A general term used for any vertical line of soil, waste, or vent piping.
STACK VENT - A stack vent is the extension of a soil or waste stack above the highest horizontal drain connected to the stack.
STANDPIPE - A vertical pipe usually used for the storage of water, frequently under pressure.
STORM WATER - Storm water is that portion of the rainfall or other precipitation, which runs off over the surface after the storm and for such a short period following a storm as the flow exceeds the normal runoff.
STORY - Story is that portion of a building included between the upper surface of any floor and the upper surface of the floor next above, except that the topmost story shall be that portion of a building of a building included between the upper surface of the topmost floor and the ceiling or roof above. If the finished floor level directly above a basement or cellar is more than six (6) feet above grade such basement or cellar shall be considered a story.
SUBSOIL DRAIN - Subsoil drains are underground drain pipes that receives only sub-surface or seepage water and convey it to place of disposal.
SUMP - A pit or receptacle at a low point to which the liquid wastes are drained.
SUPPORTS - Supports, hangers, anchors, brackets, cradles are devices for holding and securing pipes and fixtures to walls, ceiling, floors, or structural members.
SURFACE WATER - Surface water is that portion of a rainfall or other precipitation which runs off over the surface of the ground.
SWIMMING POOL - A water receptacle used for swimming designed to accommodate more than one bather at time and properly connected to a disposal system.
TAPED TEE - A cast-iron bell-end tee with the branch tapped to receive a threaded pipe of fitting .
TRAP - A fitting or device so constructed as to prevent the passage of air, gas, and some vermin through a pipe without materially affecting the flow of sewage or waste water through it.
TRAP SEAL - See seal.
UNIT VENT - An arrangement of venting so installed that one vent pipe will serve two (2) traps.
VACUUM - An air pressure less than that atmospheric. Also, siphonage.
VENT - A pipe or opening used to ensuring the circulation of air in plumbing system and for reducing the pressure exerted on trap seals.
WET VENT - Wet vent is that portion of a vent pipe through which liquid waste flow.
WASTE PIPE - A waste pipe is a pipe, which conveys only liquid waste, free of fecal matter.
YARD - A yard is an open, unoccupied space, other than a court, unobstructed from the ground to the sky, except where specifically provide by this Code, on the lot on which a building is situated.

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